Navigating the Storm Within : Understanding Panic Disorder
In our fast-paced, whirlwind lifestyle, with many of us working long hours and drawn so often to the spotlight of social media, stress anxiety are becoming more common, everyday issues. Generally, anxiety is a necessary, functional part of the human experience. But for people with panic disorder, these emotions can escalate into something much more overwhelming. Panic disorder is a mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide, causing sudden and intense rushes of adrenaline and bouts of fear known as panic attacks. In this post, we'll take a deeper look at panic disorder, exploring its symptoms, causes, treatment options, and strategies for coping.
What is Panic Disorder?
Panic disorder is characterized by recurring, unexpected panic attacks—sudden episodes of intense physical symptoms that can manifest both physically and emotionally. Panic attacks usually reach their peak within minutes and can include many distressing symptoms:
Physical Symptoms: Rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, chest pain, trembling or shaking, sweating, nausea, dizziness, feelings of choking.
Emotional Symptoms: Intense fear, a sense of impending doom, de-personalization or detachment, and a fear of losing control or dying.
Cognitive Symptoms: Racing thoughts, difficulty concentrating, and an overwhelming urge to escape the situation.
Panic attacks can occur without any obvious trigger, leading to increased anxiety about when the next attack might happen. This fear can cause individuals to begin avoiding places, activities, people or situations where they think they may have another panic attack, at times, leading to a very limited and isolated way of life. This avoidance is called agoraphobia.
What Causes Panic Disorder?
While the exact cause of panic disorder is yet to be identified, research indicates that people are born with a genetic predisposition that is highly influenced by situational and environmental factors. Some potential contributors include:
Genetics: A family history of panic disorder or other anxiety disorders increases the risk of developing panic disorder.
Brain Chemistry: An imbalance in neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and nor-epinephrine, which regulate mood and stress response, may contribute to the development of panic disorder.
Environmental Factors: Traumatic life events, such as severe illness, loss, or abuse, can increase vulnerability to panic disorder.
Stressful Life Events: Significant transitions, such as starting college, getting married, or having a baby, can trigger the onset of panic disorder in susceptible individuals.
What Kind of Treatment Helps?
With the proper approach and the right therapist, panic disorder is a very treatable condition. Many people see significant results through therapy alone. Others may need the additional help of medication. For all, there are positive lifestyle changes and coping strategies to help ensure long-term success.
Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most effective approach for panic disorder. It helps individuals identify and challenge distorted patterns of thinking, at its best, build a tolerance to the physical symptoms of panic attacks and gradually confront and desensitize themselves to the activities and situations that trigger their panic.
When practiced well, CBT has the power to transform the lives of those most severely impacted by panic disorder and agoraphobia.
Medication: Antidepressant and anti-anxiety medications can be prescribed to help manage the symptoms of panic disorder, some times just for the period of time when individuals are going through the most challenging parts of their therapy. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and benzodiazepines are commonly used under the guidance of a medical professional.
Lifestyle Changes: Regular exercise, a reduction in caffeine, proper sleep, and practices like yoga and meditation can also be helpful.
In addition to professional treatment, individuals with panic disorder can incorporate self-help strategies into their daily lives:
Education: As with any mental illness, learning helps people feel they are more in control of their experience, and less alone in their struggle.
Breathing Techniques: Diaphragmatic, or belly breathing can reset the nervous system, helping to regulate the body's response during a panic attack.
Progressive Muscle Relaxation: A practice of tensing and relaxing muscle groups, helps individuals to recognize and alleviate physical tension associated with anxiety.
Grounding: Bringing your attention back to the present moment by focusing on the senses, what you see, hear, feel and smell, can help people regain a sense of control during a panic attack.
Social Support: Sharing your experience with trusted family and friends can provide comfort, much needed support and a sense of community, rather than isolation.
Panic disorder can be an overwhelming and challenging condition, but with the right treatment approach, proper professional help and support, individuals can overcome their worst symptoms and lead full, productive lives. If you or someone you know is struggling with panic disorder or agoraphobia, remember there is good help available. You can have the life you want and you are not alone. Take that first, crucial step toward a peaceful and bright future.